Monday, May 25, 2020
In the early 1820s to 1830s, Christian Values re-awaked the banning of drinking alcohol in the United States. The State of Massachusetts passed a law in 1838 banning the sale of alcohol in anything less than a 15-gallon container. Two years later that law was revoked. This set an example for the banning of alcohol and a structure for other states to try. Later throughout the years Maine passed the first state prohibition law in 1846 , and a couple other states had followed by the time the Civil War. By the turn of the century, non-alcohol societies were common for several communities across the United States. Women were very involved in this movement because alcohol tended to destroy families and marriages. In 1906, the Anti-SaloonÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Even though there were very early signs of success, for example a decline in arrests of drunken people and a thirty percent drop in alcohol consumption, those who wanted to keep drinking found many ways to do it. Illegal man ufacturing and sale of liquor (known as bootlegging) went on throughout the decade, along with the operation of hidden bars that sold alcohol. These hidden bars were called speakeasies. Also there was smuggling of alcohol across state lines and in private homes people were making their own liquor. The Prohibition era led to a rise in criminal activity associated with bootlegging. Al Capone, the most notorious Chicago gangster earned a staggering $60 million annually from bootleg operations and speakeasies. These illegal operations had a rise on gang violence, including the St. ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day Massacre in 1929. On ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, a gang of several men dressed as policemen shot and killed a group of men in an enemy gang. The high price of bootleg liquor made working class and poor far more restricted during Prohibition than middle or upper class Americans. Even though costs for law enforcement, jails and prisons were on a rise, support for Prohibition was coming to an end. With the country sinking from the Great Depression in 1932, they had to create jobs and revenue somehow. They had no choice but to legalize the liquor industry because it would create jobs and revenue. Democrat Franklin D. RooseveltShow MoreRelatedProhibition Of Drugs And Alcohol1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPopular belief holds that consumption of drugs and alcohol encourages violence and that the appropriate response is prohibition of these goods. However, a different viewpoint is that prohibition creates illegal underground markets, which require violence and crime to remedy in-house disputes. This paper examines the relationship between prohibition and violence using the historical data and behavior following previous U.S. drug and alcohol laws, regulations, and enforcement on indicators of violenceRead More Prohibition Essay730 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Prohibition nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The success of the prohibition movement can be seen from many different views. It was measured by the prohibitionists many motives, their social make-up, their creative reasons they came up with to promote their cause, and the positive outcomes they imagined possible by prohibiting alcohol consumption. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The prohibitionists had several motives for letting loose their concern of alcohol. The main issue discussed, using theRead MoreProhibition And Prohibition Of Alcohol1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmendment and prohibition of alcohol. The Eighteenth Amendment had made the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol illegal. By illegalizing alcohol, the Eighteenth Amendment attempted to decrease domestic violence, increase productivity in the workplace, and diminish poverty and health problems associated with the consumption of alcohol. Instead it created organized crime, disrespect for the law, and general resentment towards the government. The Eighteenth Amendment and the Prohibition of alcoholRead MoreProhibition And Prohibition Essay1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Proponents of prohibition are quick to argue how crime technically decreased in its fourteen years before being repealed. While this is true for minor crimes of the times like mischief and vagrancy, organized crime saw a sharp increase once the Eighteenth Amendment outlawed alcoholic substances. While the Volstead Act was passed to enforce the amendment, and had an immediate amount of success, it was also attributed to an increase in the homicide rate to 10 per 100,000 population during the 1920sRead MoreThe History of Drug Prohibition Essays953 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Drug prohibition was not always accepted as it is today. Indeed, until the early twentieth century, there were few drug laws at all in the United States. Before the Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914, one could buy heroin at the corner drugstore; even Coca-Cola contained small amounts of cocaine until 1903 (Vallance 4). Some of the most proscribed drugs today were sold like candy and (quite literally) soda pop. What caused the sudden shift to prohibition? Prohibitionists often point outRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of Drug Prohibition1297 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNumerous researchers contend that drug prohibition policies actually create more issues than are solved. The negative effects of drug restriction policies include: negative health effects, increased drug effects, crimes at home and abroad, increased violence, misuse of assets and resources, violation of civil rights and excess on criminal and government systems. Heavy emphasis on upholding criminal restrictions on drug creation and selling was also significantly influencing the productivity of illegalRead MoreEffects Of Prohibition On The United States1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesadults because it will reduce drug related violence, promote safe drug usage, increase tax revenue, and make permanent recovery from drug usage less difficult. The prohibition on drugs forces people to turn to the black market. Prohibition has created a much larger set of secondary harms associated with the criminal market. Prohibition permits and causes the drug trade to remain a lucrative source of economic opportunity for street dealers, drug kingpins and all those willing to engage in the oftenRead MoreThe Social Impacts of Marijuana Prohibition in Brazil649 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageslike cancer, multiple sclerosis, anxiety and glaucoma. The problem is that these people have to be criminals to be able to treat themselves. Social Impacts Marijuana impacts on health Less Jails more treatment The social impacts of marijuana prohibition in brazil are many. The war on drugs, violence, firearms trafficking involved, corruption and many others. Because its so hard to differentiate an addict and a drug dealer by the amount of marijuana they carry, addicts end up in jail. Now, addictionRead MoreProhibition Of The Usa Prohibition2994 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesProhibition in the USA Prohibition was introduced to the United States of America on the 16th of January 1920 with the hope of a pure nation that was not under the influence of alcohol. Prohibition was the legal prohibiting of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages, which did not include the consuming of alcohol as you could still keep alcohol that was made or bought before 16th of January 1920. As the alcohol consumption rose substantially before the 1920s, it spurred the temperance movementsRead MoreThe Drug Prohibition Of The United States Of America1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe cohorts of drug prohibition argue that the benefits of the prohibition are self-evident and undeniable. The basis of this assumption argument is that without prohibition the consumption of drug would skyrocket, and therefore, lead to disastrous outcomes. However, there is no evidence on the commonly held belief. The empirical evidence that exists does not support the notion of souring drug consumption. For instance, in the Netherland and Switzerland, where marijuana is legalized, the consumption
Friday, May 15, 2020
Introduction Since the surface of Community policing in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and making the mark of influence on the strategies of policing throughout the United States, community policing has slowly become the direction of police interaction (Sozer and Merlo, 2013). Originally, having a breakthrough of helping reduce crime in the larger cities of America, smaller cities took the initiative and began the tactic of using community policing in the same efforts to reduce crime in local communities (Sozer and Merlo, 2013). With help from Federal funding agencies throughout the states such as, The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), the peak of utilization of community policing was on the right path for effectiveness in the areas (Sozer and Merlo, 20132013). The size of the communities became factors that were not up for discretion, it became rudiments for change in American communities. State Chief Police officers (CPO) and Lieutenants are the first line commanders when dealing with community policing. They are the main leaders and the key to the process of change (Sozer and Merlo, 2013). Community policing is strongly enforced based off consent of the neighborhoods involving the needs, strategies, and outcomes of the communities involved (Brogden, 2013, pg. 2). COP has become the primary need for reform in communities with rising crime rates, helping bring security, but not eliminating the increase in crime (Brogden, 2013, pg. 2). Although, community policing holdsShow MoreRelatedPolice Enforcement And Community Policing1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to COPS and the U.S. Department of Justice, community policing begins with a commitment to building trust and respect between police and communities. Many police department and citizens within the communities collaborate and they more effectively address underlying issues, change negative behavioral patterns, and allocate resources. Bureau of Justice Statistics defines community policing as, Ã¢â¬Å"A philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnershipsRead MorePolice Enforcement And Community Policing1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Over the past few decades community policing has become a new trend in law enforcement. A majority of contemporary police departments now claim to use community policing. Community policing builds on basic policing practices with an emphasis on crime prevention and lasting solutions to problems. Community policing was established in the 1970s, but did not become popular until the 1990s. The goal of community policing is to rebuild the bond between citizens and police officers, while at the sameRead MorePolice Policing And Community Policing1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Community Policing How effective is community policing? Community policing has several different definitions. In this paper I will prove that community policing is effective by defining, community policing as the police and citizens coming together to create a safe community, stop crime and resolve problems and also urgently responding to the community. Throughout many years, the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s view of community policing have remained the same. There are some valid causes as to whyRead MoreComparison Contrast: Community Policing vs. Traditional Policing1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPolicing in the United States has taken on many different forms and facets in the past 50 years. Although, various modes models of policing styles continue to be introduced, two main aspects of law enforcement have remained constant, (traditional policing community oriented- policing). There are so many different facets, trends, and new emerging technologies in the wide world of law enforcement. First, we will outline a br ief history of the origins and evolvement of policing. Special attentionRead MoreFice Of Community Policing Essay1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMission statement, The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services of the U.S. Department of Justice describes community policing as, community policing focuses on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances reactive responses to calls for service with proactive problem-solving centered on the causes ofRead MoreCommunity Policing : An Overarching Law Enforcement Strategy1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMidterm: Community Policing Zachary L. DeLuca Boston University Dr. Carney February 8, 2016 Ã¢â¬Æ' Community policing is an overarching law enforcement strategy that works to integrate police departments and officers with the neighborhoods they serve (Carney, 2015). Community policing strives to create a partnership between officers and citizens such that all parties are working towards the common goal of crime prevention and safety (Siegel Welsh, 2015); as described by the Bureau of JusticeRead MoreHow Effective Is Community Policing1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHow effective is community policing? Community policing has several different definitions. In this paper I will prove that community policing is effective by defining, community policing as the police and citizens coming together to create a safe community, stop crime and resolve problems and also urgently responding to the community. Throughout many years, the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s view of community policing have remained the same. There are some valid causes as to why law enforcement leaders consider thatRead MoreCommunity Po licing And Bridging Gap Between The Community And Law Enforcement1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCommunity Policing and Bridging the Gap Between the Community and Law Enforcement Matthew Whitworth American Military University Professor McFarland CRMJ203 Patrol Methodologies and Community Policing August 22, 2015 The current landscape of Law Enforcement is as volatile as it has ever been. Police brutality and racism is being highlighted in media coverage daily. In the past year, numerous cases of police brutality have been the central focus of news agencies. The death of Freddy GreyRead MoreEssay on Sir Robert Peel863 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageson policing to the varied needs of contemporary society, it was revealed that police departments currently use the nine principles that Peel established in 1829. These principles are used as a foundation for the police to prevent crime and also to preserve a positive relationship with the community. It will be explained how PeelÃ¢â¬â¢s policing and principles are being utilized in the modern era and also show his position on policing. In 1829 Sir Robert Peel formed the Metropolitan Police whileRead MoreTheories Of Crime Analysis Spring1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Types of Policing Policing is to regulate, control, or keep in order with a law enforcement agency or other official group. It is a job done every minute of every hour of everyday by men and women willing to risk their health and life. To make the job easier different styles or types of policing methods have been developed. Some of the most influential types of policing include community oriented policing, problem oriented policing and intelligence led policing. Community oriented policing
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Throughout history the powerful few have managed to seize control of a state and exercise their power and influence in a manner that inflicts great damage on a few for the alleged benefit of the many. To further their agenda these dictators vilify and oppress a small group in society and justify their actions by claiming that the persecuted group is inferior, subversive and represent a danger to society. This pattern of persecution can be observed as far back as the 1500s in the Spanish Inquisition, in the 1700s with the Salem Witch Hunts or more recently in Nazi Germany. The persecuted in all of these tragedies share in common at least one thing: they fail to effectively express opposition to their oppression. In the classic dystopianÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦No doubt, the issue of equal rights for women (or lack thereof) has been a pervasive problem in our own society, a fact which now tends to be overlooked by virtue of the current improved status of women both socially and economically. Similar to our society, the HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale portrays womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights as an ongoing serious problem that even predates the inception of Gilead. The struggle for equality can be observed by the actions of a few women before Gilead, including OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s Mother, who was a stout feminist activist, and Moira, who was often enraged by the inequality of the sexes. Notwithstanding the actions of a few women, however, and while the majority of women in the HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, like Offred, acknowledged that the status of women was still inferior, the majority remained fiercely content and violently apathetic, in large measure because of the relative improved condition of some like the Handmaid Offred. Offered is perhaps the most striking. Not only was Offred provided ample opportunity to support feminism and equality, but was also surrounded by feminists such as her mother and Moira, and despite all (or perhaps because of) she remained apathetic. To be su re, some actions perpetrated by Moira and OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s mother could be considered misguided at best and counterproductive at worst. For example, MoiraÃ¢â¬â¢s unreasonable stance on men are illustrative: Ã¢â¬Å"If Moira thought she could create Utopia by shutting herself up in a women-only enclaveShow MoreRelatedBrave New World vs 1984757 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAldous Huxley s Brave New World is more relevant today than George Orwell s 1984. Although both of the two totalitarian societies are based on plausible premises, the Utopia depicted in Brave New World still has a chance of appearing today, while the Big Brother-dominated society created by Orwell, being based to some extent on the totalitarian societies that existed at the time of the book s inception, is simply obsolete. Brave New World remains more believable in modern times becauseRead MoreAnalysis Of Brave New World 1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe TV and surveillance equipment in 1984 was always watching and Ã¢â¬Å"the instrumentÃ¢â¬ ¦ could be dimmed, but there was no way of shutting it off completelyÃ¢â¬ (Orwell 2). Most of the people in both societies are okay with the constant surveillance and manipulation, and for this reason, they also do not mind the case system that is implemented into both societies. In Brave New World, everyone accepts their caste, even the lowest ones. The government tries to make sure that people do not socialize outsideRead MoreThe Brave New World, By Aldous Huxley And 1984 By George Orwell1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescompares the two dystopian societies of Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell. He suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"Orwell feared that what we hate will ruin us. Huxley feared that what we love will ruin usÃ¢â¬ (Postman). The Party of 19 84 maintained control of the people by keeping them under constant surveillance, whereas the government of Brave New World kept the citizens so happy, they never felt threatened enough to put up a fight. Both Brave New World and 1984 multiple methods of fear manipulationRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Brave New World1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesattempted to predict what the future holds for our society. If one was to narrow their focus on the past century they would see the works and predictions of Aldous Huxley and George Orwell. Both Huxley and Orwell, as one could infer, composed novels that describe future societies and their inner workings. Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World, where members of society originate from a lab and whoÃ¢â¬â¢s lives are pre-determined by the controllers. The controllers of HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s futuristic societyÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamentalRead MoreGovernment Control Of 1984 And Brave New World1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGovernment Control in 1984 and Brave New Worl d In light of current events, society is more concerned than ever about just how much power the government has over people. Individuals are concerned that those in charge might implement policies that could deteriorate certain groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality of living. To some, this may be foolish, but as is shown in some novels, this could happen, and when it does, it is hard to combat. In both George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s 1984 and Aldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brave New World authors depict societiesRead MoreGeorge Orwell And Aldous Huxley s Brave New World1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIt may be hard to imagine what the future may seem to hold, but George Orwell and Aldous Huxley were able to do so and show us by basing their futuristic stories loosely on the history of the two diverse societies of The United States and Soviet Russia. Yet, the societies in each book disavow history for the most part. Psychological manipulation and physical control as a means of maintaining its power over the people is explo red in both books. They also forewarn about the dangers of totalitarianRead MoreDystopian Society In 1984 By George Orwell, And Harrison Bergeron846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ Imagine a world in which people were controlled by fear. Dystopian societies are mostly controlled by a mean and power hungry leader which makes it hard for the citizens grow, themselves and have their own thoughts.Some of the citizens donÃ¢â¬â¢t really know they are being controlled and others are wide awake but scared to speak up and rebel against this power hungry leaders. The works Ã¢â¬Å"1984 by George Orwell, Ã¢â¬Å"Brave New world by Aldous Huxley, and Harrison BergeronÃ¢â¬ by Kurt Vonnegut all have dystopianRead MoreBrave New World, And 1984 Replace The Existence Of God1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare free to worship and praise God s existence, as well as acknowledge that they are constantly being watched by him. This confidence in God creates a sense of security and hope for the community that there is a purpose for their existence, and the world does not come to a tragic end after death. Yevgeny Zamyatin, Aldous Huxley, and George Orwell, authors of WE, Brave New World, and 1984 replace the existence of God with leaders or objects that symbolize their new Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬ . Although the concepts of adorationRead MoreAldous Huxley s Brave New World1080 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesComplete ControlÃ¢â¬ Today, one s perceptions of happiness are more often than not associated with material achievements, advancements, or perhaps, love. In Brave New World, however, happiness is based upon the pursuit of stability and emotional equilibrium Aldous Huxley s dystopian novel, Brave New World serves as a warning of the ominous. Set in London, the totalitarian regime instills the motto of stability, community, [and] identity(Huxley.1.1) in its citizens. Huxley s dystopia attempts to findRead MoreA New Dystopia By George Orwell1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA New Dystopia Who will reign supreme; Aldous Huxley or George Orwell? Ever since these two authors released their dystopian novels over 50 years ago, both authors and avid fans have argued as to which dystopia will take over our society. Will it be the brute force, boot and gun approach of Orwell s dystopia or the all-loving, drug-accepting society that Huxley illustrates? If you take a closer look, a mix of both dystopias is quite apparent in our society today; we are living in our own modern
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Despite even our best efforts to accurately gather and interpret information, none of us has perfect perception. Instead, a variety of factors limit our ability to gather and process information and make accurate judgements. Discuss the factors that limit and distort our perception and contribute to bias. What can individuals and organisations do to overcome this? Answer: Introduction In the current complicated and diverse organisations, it is very rare that two people have same mind-set and thinking. Every individual and organisation has their own mind-sets or views or perception towards something. Perception is a procedure by which persons mentally establish some sort of sensual info in their environment in order to give it a meaning that can help them to recognize why things might not always like the way they are viewing it. In simple terms, perceptions could be defined as the procedure of observation and interpretation. Another important aspect that helps individuals and organisations is bias. In terms of definition, bias can be referred as the inadequate valuation between two different substitutes that typically puts one option in a favourable place and other in an unfavourable one. Perception and bias at the place of work are effected by many features that can outline and occasionally also disrupt or misrepresent the views. Every individual and organisations has their own set of personal appearances such as character, age, gender, values, attitudes, goals, purposes, outlooks, which interrupts how an individual or an organisation understands the world and the atmosphere around them. This essay will discuss the factors that limit and distort the perception of an individual and organisation and lead to bias. Along with it, the study will also illustrate the strategies that individuals and organisations can utilise to overcome this biasness. Factors that limits and distorts the perception and lead to bias Perception and bias at the place of work are effected by many features that can form and sometimes also disrupt or misrepresent the views (Dolgov, 2009). Every individual and organisations has their personal set of individualities such as behaviour, age, sex, culture, approaches, goals, purposes, prospects, which interrupts how an individual or an organisation reads the world and the atmosphere around them. Same personal characteristics can be seen in others which are used to develop perceptions (Sahar, 2014). But the context on which the perception gets developed is also very important for individuals and organisation. When personal characteristics and context are taken into deliberation, it is easy to understand how quickly opinions regarding a same thing could vary from person to person. At the workshop, the insights of the people which they have regarding each other can importantly disturb the way in which an organisation functions. Individuals senses help them to gain basic information about its surroundings and also basic inputs about the world. These inputs or information are used to put them in order in such a way that are beneficial to individuals and their attempts in dealing with the surroundings (Sloos and McKeown, 2015). Individuals gather these inputs with the help of four different stages namely, stimuli, registering, organising and analysing. The last stage of the stated procedure which is the interpretation and analysis is called as perception (Pronin, 2007). The perception of an individual gets distort by number of individual factors such as needs of the perceiver, past experience, emotional mind set and many more. Here are the major factors that limit and distort the perception of an individual and contribute to bias: A cognitive bias is referred to the methodical pattern of the abnormality from norm or rationality in judgment in which implications about the others and situations may be drawn into an irrational fashion (Hales and Johnson, 2014). According to this paradigm, individuals create their own pattern of particular social reality from their insight of the input (Sloos and McKeown, 2015). In terms of definition, cognitive bias can be referred as the attempts of the individual to simplify the information procedures. It is evident that people sometimes takes shortcuts which lead them towards a wrong path. Here are some of the cognitive biases: Stereotypy can is seen in places where individuals and organisations see some certain attributes or traits in connection or association with a specific group as an outcome of their specialisation on a specific culture (Kristovics et al., 2011). Stereotyping is a situation when an individual or organisation judges someone on the basis of their perception of the group to which the person belongs. Halo effect can be taken as the tendency or predisposition to critic or review the particular qualities and attributes from a general notion about just one quality or attribute. Any individual or organisation that works under the halo effect simple assumes a tailored or adapted rational consistency of certain attributes (Howgego, 2015). Under this, an individual is admired for one of his or her trait through which he or she will be rated well on other traits as well. A halo effect is considered as the outcome in an area due to factors derived from another (Kozzowski, 2016). The halo effect is a type of cognitive bias which is an overall imprint of an individual effect on how they feel and think about their specific characters. As for illustration, the halo effect can be seen on the actions regarding the overall impression of celebrities. People perceive then attractive and successful which also tends them to think celebrities as intelligent, kind and funny. According to the Psychologist Edward Thorndike, characteristics included in the halo effect are the leadership, physical appearance, intelligence, loyalty and dependability. Another example of halo effect can be seen in classroom (Karthick, 2010). If a teacher who sees a well-behave student is good in academic tend to assume that the specific student is also bright and engaged with other teachers and students in good manner. In the context of organisation, halo effect can be seen at the workplace (Jussim, 2012). The stated effect is most likely to show up in a managers assessment regarding an assistants working presentation. The supervisor may develop the total perception about the subordinate on a single feature of the worker such as passion. Projection is a type of cognitive bias that develops when an individual perceives some specific attributes in others that are actually his or her own but are not desirable to him or humiliating to other (Pronin, 2007). According to several studies, people who themselves have some specific negative trait rates others very high on the same traits. It is a kind of projection bias that persons are disposed to scheme their present penchant to future penchant prediction and to overstate the degree in which their future liking will bear a resemblance to their present one (Hales and Johnson, 2014). It has been seen in many studies that this kind of trait or phenomenon in different judgement and decision making situations. Some of the factors that influence the projection bias are the endogenous factors that consist of emotional state and need, and the exogenous factors such as weather condition and choosing situation (Vassilopoulos and Moberly, 2012). In simple terms, projection bias occurs with individuals and organisation when they behave as if their future choices will be more likely to their present choices. According to psychologist Alan Marlatt, projection bias hints people to overrate their own ability to battle the temptations around them while declining the attempts to work out the self-control. According to him, people might feel greater self-assurance regarding their capability to cope with the enticement when they are in cool state. It is the confidence that leads people to let them down on their guard (Hales and Johnson, 2014). Projection bias can also get developed interpersonally. When an individual projects his or her feelings onto another person, he or she may make that individual resemble him or herself and could deliver insight to the person. In the projection bias, individuals project their own current information on themselves in the past. Selective Perception is a type of cognitive bias that tends to focus on the peoples attention on the issues that they relate to their own interests, experiences, attitudes, not only in pointing their perception about the others but also in any situation (Hales and Johnson, 2014). Every organisation and individual has some cognitive biases that get developed due to some specific expectations that they may have. Once a person pampers himself or herself in the selective perception due to some active thinking, he or she can relocate this information to long-term memory. The attribution theory eventually explains how people identify the reasons for the other people behaviours. This theory is about how people interpret events and in their minds and relates them to the way they think or behave. Attribution theory is termed as the psychological theory that attempts to explain the behaviour and is very useful in the management of the organisations. Attribution theory is significant for the associations as it assist managers to comprehend some of the cause of worker behaviour and can assist workers in accepting their own way of thinking regarding their own behaviour (Gelfand, Chiu and Hong, 2011). If a person can understand why he or she is behaving in a certain way and could also recognise why others are behaving in a certain way, then that person could have better understanding of yourself, others and organisation. The perception regarding the causes of particular behaviour could affect the judgement and actions of both the employees and the managers. A ttribution theory could also play an important role in the motivation of the employees. Strategies to overcome biasness in perception In general, individuals simple tends to assume that others are internally responsible for their own behaviour as they are not aware of all the impacting factors (Vassilopoulos and Moberly, 2012). Thus, it is important for organisations and individuals to minimise the biases in the perceptions. Here are several strategies that could be used to reduce the bias in perception: The first strategy is identifying and confronting the stereotypes. Changing the understanding biases is a proof that individual is acknowledging employees with a same eye. Though it is usual to rely on the stereotypes, perceptions are sure to result on the outlay of someone else (Attarha and Moore, 2014). It is important to recognise the stereotypes that individuals or organisations are holding. By doing so, individuals will helped to be more aware of them for minimizing their impact on their behaviour. Another approach that could reduce the biasness in perception is by evaluation of the people on the basis of objective factors. The more impartial the information an individual use top judge others, the less their judgements will be theme to perceptual distortion (Karthick, 2010). Another thing that can be done is avoiding the rash judgements. It is evident that human jumps to conclusion on what people are like, even when they know very little about them. It is important that organisations or individuals take considerable time to know the individual properly. The third approach that could be used to reduce bias is by taking the visible action. As an organisation executes its strategy it is important to seek some tactics that are visible and then promote the actions which needs to be taken. But it is also important to state here that changing perceptions needs more than those with negative perceptions seeking what are different. It is important to state that people and individuals must feel the change (Attarha and Moore, 2014). Measuring the progress is also important. It is important that individuals regularly check the views on the basis of some initial critics. By engaging in some of the critics in the strategy development procedures, an individual can diminish his or her perceptions. Conclusion It has been found in the study that perception and bias at the factory are effected by many factors that can form and occasionally also disrupt or misrepresent the views. Every individual and organisations has their own set of personal appearances such as personality, age, gender, culture, attitudes, goals, motives, prospects, which interrupts how an individual or an organisation understands the world and the atmosphere around them. Same personal characteristics can be seen in others which are used to develop perceptions. For reducing the biasness in perception, it is important to recognise the stereotypes that individuals or organisations are holding. By doing so, individuals will helped to be more aware of them for minimizing their impact on their behaviour. The study revealed that for diminishing distort in perception measuring the progress is also important. It is important that individuals regularly check the views on the basis of some initial critics. By engaging in some of the critics in the strategy development procedures, an individual can diminish his or her perceptions. References Attarha, M. and Moore, C. (2014). Onset rivalry: factors that succeed and fail to bias selection.Attention, Perception, Psychophysics, 77(2), pp.520-535. Dolgov, I. (2009).On perceptual regularities and the axis-aligned motion bias. Gelfand, M., Chiu, C. and Hong, Y. (2011). Advances in culture and psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Hales, S. and Johnson, J. (2014). Luck Attributions and Cognitive Bias.Metaphilosophy, 45(4-5), pp.509-528. Howgego, J. (2015). Cognitive bias. New Scientist, 228(3051), pp.31-32. Jussim, L. (2012).Social perception and social reality. New York: Oxford University Press. Karthick, K. (2010).Organisational Behaviour. New Delhi: Himalaya Pub. House. Kozzowski, u. (2016). The Halo Effect in Banking? Evidence from Polish Local Markets.SSRN Electronic Journal. Kristovics, A., Kinicki, A., Kinicki, A., McShane, S., Kreitner, R., Lamberton, L., Dwyer, J., Luthans, F. and Colquitt, J. (2011).Organisational behaviour. North Ryde, N.S.W.: McGraw-Hill Custom Publishing. Pronin, E. (2007). Perception and misperception of bias in human judgment.Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(1), pp.37-43. Sahar, G. (2014). On the Importance of Attribution Theory in Political Psychology.Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(5), pp.229-249. Sloos, M. and McKeown, D. (2015). Bias in Auditory Perception.i-Perception, 6(5), p.204166951560715. Vassilopoulos, S. and Moberly, N. (2012). Cognitive Bias Modification in Pre-adolescent Children: Inducing an Interpretation Bias Affects Self-imagery.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(3), pp.547-556.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Introduction Business plays a significant role in policy decisions, since they are major players in the economy which are of great concern to everybody. This paper explores some of the policies made and how business can influence the policy making process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Business and Policies specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Policies the Industry Might Have The corporation should give enough information to consumers through accurately indicating the ingredients, warning on the potential dangers of over consumption of specific foods, and also educate the consumers on the health requirements pertaining food nutrients. Firms should also participate in environmental cleaning acts which will help in reduction of environmental pollution as is done by McDonald Corporation. The firms can also get involved in offering free medical services to the public and also providing equipments to local hospitals. Im proving the working conditions of the employees as Burger king company, and assisting in research for enhancement of technology and agricultural methods will also be a good policy. It is ethically and legally right for the firms to make the consumers aware of the impending dangers of using a certain commodity, as this enables consumers to make an informed decision on whether to consume or not. On the other hand, technological improvement coupled with advanced agricultural methods will increase efficiency and production hence economically boosting the corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ activities. Besides, it is an act of philanthropy for the industry to equip hospitals and sponsor free medical services during given period of the year which helps in improving the health status of the society. Privileged Position of Business and Policy Making Privileged businesses control most of the resources and usually use this as a tool to ensure that policies which favour their activities sail through. These f irms can threaten to move their activities to other regions, laying off workers and causing other economic downfalls, forcing government to do everything possible to favour businesses because any economic ill performance is always blamed on the government.Advertising Looking for essay on business corporate law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Politicians also being a ware of the role business play in the economy of the society, they endeavor to involve them in the policy making process or make regulations that favour businesses which makes these firms have a very influential role. On top of that, as people are concerned about the performance of the economy, the powers of businesses in policy making becomes significantly huge, since many people associate good economic performance to businesses. Globalization Effect on Policy Making Globalization has led to global interdependency which has minimized the independence of internal policy making of governments, thus limiting the governmental control over some issues. Participation on the global arena for business or other forms of investment, limits the policy choices that are available on national level because demand for the governments is influenced by global requirements, this sometimes evens calls for amendment of long standing policies. Globalization, has also increased the influence of foreign countries in the policy making of a country mostly, through the international policy making process. It has been argued though, that globalization has no effect on national policy making and the important point is to have strong governments, which will enforce the rule of law and exercise democracy. The effects of globalization on national policy decisions still remains a subject of debate which requires research to solve it. Stakeholder Concerns on Corporate Governance The company should maximize the returns to the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ investments, ensure that t he creditors and suppliers are paid as per the agreements and also operate within the legal requirement of their nature of business. In addition, consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest should be taken into consideration while at the same time working towards limiting negative effects on the environment.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Business and Policies specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay on Business and Policies was written and submitted by user Audrina Blake to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
buy custom Outsourcing Information Technology essay Outsourcing information technology (IT) services can be the best way, for an organization operating in the banking sector, to achieve quality results while keeping the administrative costs low (Goo, 2010). IT functions that the bank should outsource include development and management of databases, and development of data centers (Bucki, 2011). The IT function of developing databases should be outsourced because the bank has many departments, which deal with data capturing. For instance, in the credit and the customer service departments, the bank may require databases containing information of the legal entities and the physical persons who they deal with. In most cases, first-time customers are issued with printed forms where they fill in their details after which the forms are returned to the banks staffs for processing. Given the huge size of the bank, it can outsource database development and management services to outside service providers. The bank can physically send or fax th e customers forms to the organization where the service has been outsourced. Outsourcing data centre services will assist the bank in processing customers plastic cards. Since the banks size is relatively big, it is likely that its customer base is also huge. Therefore, customers need for plastic cards may be high. The impact of outsourcing the above-mentioned IT services on the banks employees is that, they will be able to concentrate better on the banks core business, which is offering banking services to customers (Bucki, 2011). However, the bank may have to layoff some of the employees: specifically clerical staffs. On the other hand, the impact of outsourcing the aforementioned IT functions on the customers is that, they will have their banking information processed quickly. For instance, while applying for a plastic card, the customer may have the card processed and ready for use in less than 24 hours. In addition, outsourcing database development and management services can enable the customers to have real-time access to their banking information. Buy custom Outsourcing Information Technology essay
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Should Red Bull keep on investing in the Formula 1 Championship for next year - Essay Example The increasing trend of marketing through sponsorships of events is visible to everyone. Around 15 years ago less than 25 percent of events had some sort of corporate support and involvement but today this percentage has increased to 80 percent (McDowell, 1999). These events are an easy way through which an organization can communicate their messages to the customers. Red Bull is a soft drink company that is using sponsorships as a way to market its soft drink. Red Bull sponsors Formula 1 racing events all over the world. They also have many sports teams that take part in sporting events. Red Bull Racing is a Formula 1 racing team that is owned by Red Bull. The company also owns another racing team in Formula 1 known as Scuderia Toro Rosso (Formula 1.com, 2008). The company also sponsors other extreme sport like snowboarding and wakeboarding. The marketing technique of Red Bull is well known and it is known to work for the company. Associating the brand with extreme sports also commu nicates a brand image of the product to the consumers. This is one great advantage of sponsorships of events. Sponsorships of events actually communicate with consumers in a better way than conventional marketing (Meenaghan, 1991). Therefore the efficacy of marketing through sponsorships of events is well established.... It is vital to find the efficacy of this marketing technique in times of financial crisis. This is the main problem that we will attempt to solve. The topic of this research proposal is that whether Red Bull should continue to invest in Formula 1 championships or not in the next year that is 2012. This investment includes the sponsorships of the event and the racing teams of the company. This research proposal will identify the process in which the answer to the above question will be obtained. Aims and objective of the research alongside with a comprehensive literature review on the subject of marketing through sponsorship will be presented. Research methodology will also be discussed in the proposal. Aims and Objective Research Topic The Marketing of Red Bull through sponsorships of sports events like Formula 1 Business Question Should Red Bull continue to invest in Formula 1 championship in the next year? Aim The aim is to help Red Bull make a decision about its marketing techniqu es in the wake of the financial crisis the world is facing today. Objectives 1) To understand what marketing through sponsorships of event it and its importance 2) To seek the economic worth of sponsorship marketing 3) To evaluate the benefit of sponsorships for Red Bull 4) To gain insight on the effect of Formula 1 Championship on brand awareness of Red Bull by collecting responses from customers Literature Review Marketing through Sponsorships Different marketing techniques have been developed over the years and all of them aim at better communication with the target audience. Sponsorship is a way through which a product can be marketed to the customers. Research has suggested that sponsorships do help a product achieve competitive advantage over